(every event, every time result)
If I leave home at 7.45 a.m., I get to school at 8.00 a.m.
When I play squash, I am always sore the next morning.
*** when/if + first form (Present Simple), Present Simple ***
(real possibility in future, future result)
If the sun doesn't shine soon, I will buy air tickets to Mallorca.
If Helen goes to the party, I can get a lift with her.
*** if + first form (present simple), will/can/going to … + infinitive ***
*** also with when, as soon as, before, after, till, until & while, when talking about the future, but only „if ...“ is called the first conditional ***
(present/future fantasy, present/future result)
If i were you, I would study over the weekend. (but I am not you!)
If Helen went to the party, I would get a lift with her. (but she isn't going to the party!)
*** if + second form (Past Simple), would/could/might + infinitive ***
I wish I were on a beach in Thailand. (but I am not on a beach in …)
I wish I had more money in my pocket. (but I don't have more money in …)
I wish I could/would make some more friends. (complaint)
I wish the economy would improve. (complaint)
Iwish you wouldn't interrupt me all the time. (complaint)
*** wish + someone + could/would(n't) + action verb ***
(past fantasy, present/past fantasy result)
If I had studied harder, I would be rich today. (I didn't study harder and I am not rich today!)
If Helen had gone to the party, I could have got a lift with her. (Helen didn't to to the party and didn't give me a lift!)
*** if + Past Perfect, would/could/might + infinitive (present result) ***
*** if + Past Perfect, would/could/might + Present Perfect (past result) ***
(past fantasy/regrets/complaints about the past)
I wish I had studied harder at school. (but I didn't)
I wish I hadn't said what I said. (but I did)
I wish I had made more friends at high school. (but I didn't)
I wish you hadn't interrupted me all the time. (but you did)
*** wish + someone + Past Perfect ***
(real possibilities not fantasy)
I wish you all the luck in the world.
I hope you have all the luck in the world.
I hope you win the grammar award tomorrow.
*** wish + someone + noun ***
*** hope + someone + verb ***